ListFirst Phrase



#PhraseDescriptionFileNameTranslated count:Pictures added:
1The mechanism of a firearm, that loads and secures the cartridge in the chamber.NFSC54
2The part of a firearm by which it loaded, fired and unloaded.Norma14
3The process by which metal is softened by exposure to heat. Case necks which have become brittle as a result of repeated resizing can be annealed to prevent cracking and yield longer life. Case neck annealing must be done with care to prevent softening of the case head.Norma25
4A metallic element which increases the hardness of lead when combined as an alloy.Norma12
5A component of the primer, against which the priming composition is crushed by the impact of the firing pin.NFSC52
6The part of the primer which offers resistance to the primer compound as the firing pin strikes the primer. In firing, the primer compound is compressed sharply against the anvil and the resulting shearing force sets off the ignition constitutents contained in the primer compound.Norma12
7See Self Loader.NFSC41
8A term used by the military to denote bullet. Also used by Olin Industries to describe their spherical powder.Norma22
9The ration of a bullet's sectional density to its coefficient of for, used to describe the bullet's effectiveness in overcoming air resistance during flight.Norma21
10The science of moving projectiles.NFSC42
11The science and study of projectiles in motion. Divided into three parts: Interior Ballistics is used to describe the events which take place from ignition until the projectile leaves the muzzle. Exterior Ballistics describes the projectile's flight from muzzle to target, and Terminal Ballistics is the study of events after the bullet reaches the target.Norma22
12Crucial part of the firearms. It is the straight shooting tube, usually made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gases is used to propel a projectile out of the front end at a high velocity.Manual23
13The gap or space between the cylinder and forcing cone of the barrel in a revolver.Norma11
14The portion of a projectile which comes in contact with the bore.Norma22
15The fit between the metal and the stock of a rifle.NFSC52
16The part of the stock which forms the contact with the action and/or barrel. The act of fitting the action to the stock.Norma13
17A cartridge case with reinforcing belt forward of the extractor groove, characteristic of most modern "magnum" cartridges.Norma22
18Normally found only in European military cartridges, the Berdan Primer requires a protrusion in the bottom of the primer pocket to serve as an anvil.Norma23
19A propellant developed several centuries ago from a combination of saltpetre, charcoal, and sulphur.NFSC51
20The pronounced taper at the heel of a bullet. Used frequently on military and match bullets.Norma14
21A special type of projectile or bullet, having a base of reduced diameter to assist flight.NFSC41
22The portion of a case between the head and the point where the shoulder begins to taper.Norma13
23Part of a breech loading firearm worked by hand, spring or expanding gases, by which cartridges are fed into the chamber, held and extracted after firing.NFSC43
24The part of the action which contains the firing pin assembly, extractor mechanism and the locking system.Norma13
25The front portion of the bolt which normally contains the firing pin hole and to which the extractor is attached.NFSC31
26The interior of the barrel of the firearm.NFSC42
27The interior of a barrel. When used to describe a rifled barrel, the diameter before the rifling is cut.Norma22
28The technique of aligning the sights of a rifle with the target by sighting through the barrel.Norma12
29Today the most common type of primer where the anvil is included in the primer. The case has only one flash hole in the middle of the primer pocket.Norma23
30A common term used by handloaders in referring to empty cartridge cases. An alloy of copper and zinc.Norma22
31The rear end of the chamber into which the cartridge is inserted.NFSC63
32See projectile.NFSC33
33The cartridge component which, when in flight, becomes a projectile.Norma21
34Part of a Bullet.Manual24
35Component of a BulletManual22
36Component of a BulletManual22
37Part of a Bullet.Manual21
38The vertical distance of the bullet's trajectory above or below the line of sight.Norma11
39Tool used to remove the bullet from the case.Norma17
40Part of a Bullet.
Manual21
41Part of a Bullet.Manual25
42The round or half round black or red centre of a typical paper target.NFSC31
43A relative term used to define the rate at which a powder burns in comparison with other powders in individual cartridges.Norma11
44The rear portion of a firearm stock which is held against the shoulder of the firer.NFSC33
45The nominal diameter of the groove or bore, often modified to show the date of adoption (.30-06) or the designer (.257 Roberts), etc. Caliber is expressed either in decimals of an inch (.308") or in metric (7mm) measurements. Rifle or cartridge designations are often merely approximated: for example: .30, .308 and .300 cartridges all use a .308" diameter bullet.Norma11
46The nominal diameter of the bore of a firearm or the nominal diameter of the bullet or projectile.NFSC31
47A groove around the jacketed bullet into which the lip of the cartridge is crimped. A grease groove in lead bullets.NFSC41
48A groove around a bullet that is used for crimping, lubricating or identification.Norma11
49An early form of today's primer, used to ignite black powder charges. The term is still sometimes used to denote powder.Norma21
50The combination of components when assembled, ie. case, primer, powder (wads in the case of shotgun cartridges), projectiles.NFSC32
51A complete round of ammunition with all components intact.Norma12
52The metallic, paper or plastic container for the primer or powder.NFSC33
53The salvageable brass component of a cartridge which serves as a container for the expendable components.Norma13
54Tool used for trimming case length back to original dimensions.Norma12
55A cartridge with the primer located in the center of the case head.Norma15
56The enlarged portion of the bore in which the cartridge rests in the position to be fired.NFSC43
57The section of the barrel which encloses the cartridge to restrict case expansion during firing.Norma23
58A molding taken of the chamber by pouring a low-melting-point metal or compund into the chamber. The casting permits accurate measurement of critical chamber dimensions.Norma14
59The process of reaming or beveling a taper on the inside or outside of a case mouth to remove burrs left by the case trimming operation.Norma13
60The quantity of powder loaded into a case. Usually expressed in grains and/or tenths of a grain.Norma11
61An instrument which measures a projectile's velocity electronically, based on the elapsed time between two measured reference points.Norma12
62A device that holds a number of cartridges together for easy or quick loading.NFSC32
63The items necessary to load a cartridge (brass, primer, powder, bullet).Norma16
64A condition where powder is packed more densely in a case than would normally occur. Cause by filling the case to a point where seating a bullet compresses the powder.Norma12
65The center, lead section(s) of a bullet.Norma22
66Deterioration of the metal components of a firearm. Often caused by chemical or electro-chemical reaction, arising from the by-product of fired propellant and compounded by improper cleaning and oiling.NFSC31
67An older type primer in which the compound, if not removed after, attracted moisture and resulted in rust. Use of this compound was generally discontinued about 1950.Norma22
68To turn the case mouth slightly inward, usually into a cannelure, to grip a bullet firmly.Norma13
69Tubular shaped smokeless powder which is manufactured by an extrusion process.Norma13
70To remove the rough and jagged edges left when a case is trimmed to length.Norma13
71A tool for removing the rough metal burrs from a trimmed case mouth.Norma22
72To eject the spent primer from the pocket of a fired case.Norma11
73In reloading, a tool used to re-form a fired brass case or to seat a fresh bullet into the case mouth. In bullet making, a tool used to form the bullet.Norma12
74Smokeless powder manufactured of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine.Norma11
75A term used in exterior ballistics to describe the deviation of a projectile laterally from the Line of Departure. Caused by the projectile's rotation.Norma11
76The effect of gravity on the projectile. The distance between the line of departure and the trajectory at a given distance.Norma11
77A device which ejects or throws the empty case clear of the firearm after it has been withdrawn from the chamber by the extractor.NFSC42
78The vertical movement of an adjustable sight to cause the bullet to strike the point of aim at various ranges.NFSC43
79The vertical adjustment of a sight to bring the of aim into coincidence with the point of impact.Norma13
80The potential amount of work that can be performed by a projectile.NFSC22
81In ballistics, the ammount of work a projectile is capable of accomplishing. Usually measured at the muzzle and as remaining energy at various distances from the muzzle.Norma12
82The indentations and other marks on the bullet surface caused by the rifling.Norma11
83The wearing away of the bore of a firearm by friction and corrosion from fouling.NFSC23
84The wearing away of the rifling due to hot powder gases and/or bullet friction. The erosion is usually heaviest in the riflings closest to the throat area.Norma13
85A thicker section of the decapping stem, used to expand the case mouth to the precise diameter required to hold the bullet firmly.Norma13
86The device which grips the cartridge case and withdraws it from the chamber.NFSC31
87A circular indentation in the rear of a rimless cartridge case by which the extractor grips the shell.NFSC33
88An indication of excessive pressure shown by a ring or "cratering" around the primer indent where the primer has been extruded into the firing pin recess on the bolt face.Norma12
89Firing the cartridge to achieve full expansion of the case to the dimension of the chamber.Norma11
90A device controlled by the trigger, which strikes the primer causing the firing of the cartridge.NFSC23
91A spring-loaded, round-tipped pin which is held under compressin after cocking. Pulling the trigger activates a sear which allows the firing pin to snap sharply forward to strike the primer.Norma13
92Thin, round, flake-type of smokeless powder which is usually of a fast-burning nature.Norma12
93The small hole (or holes) from the base of the primer pocket into the case interior through which the primer flash ignites the powder.NFSC34
94An opening that provides access through the web for the primer flash to ignite the powder granules in the case interior.Norma13
95A barrel which does not touch the fore-end of the stock.NFSC43
96An unaccountable shot wide of the mark or target.NFSC41
97A unit of energy. The force required to lift one pound of weight to a height of one foot.Norma11
98The forward part of the stock under the barrel.NFSC22
99A deposit of residue from burning powder or from bullet metal on the interior surface of a barrel.NFSC43
100Feet per second. The measurement used to describe the velocity of the projectile.Norma11
101The forward most portion of the chamber of a rifle. It is located just forward of the chamber neck. The projectile can move without resistance in the freebore and thus the diameter here is allways larger than the groove diameter of the barrel. See also Throat or Leade.Norma13
102In handloading, the vapor form of burning powder. This heavy gas is capable of expanding rapidly, creating sufficient pressure to propel the bullet.Norma11
103A unit of measurement for shotgun bore diameters, determined by the number of solid lead balls of the bore diameter obtainable from 1lb of lead.NFSC22
104An alloy of copper and zinc, commonly used for bullet jacket material. Often called Tombac in Europe.Norma13
105The weight unit used in measuring powder charges or bullet eights. One pound avoirdupois is equal to 7000 grains. 437,5 grains is equivalent to one ounce.Norma22
106A unit of weight used for bullets or powder charge - 1 ounce avdp = 437.5 grains. 1lb avdp = 7000 grains.NFSC32
107Spiral cuts or impressions in the bore of a firearm that causes a projectile to spin as it moves through the barrel.NFSC44
108The spiral cut that is removed from the bore to leave the "lands". The grooves of a .30 caliber rifle are approximately .308" in diameter.Norma14
109The term applied to a series of shots fired at a target with a constant point of aim and sight setting to test accuracy.NFSC24
110Part of some actions controlled by the trigger, which drives the firing pin to strike the primer, firing the cartridge.NFSC43
111Ignition in a cartridge which is delayed beyond the normal time after the firing pin has struck the primer.NFSC21
112A condition where ignition is delayed after the strike of the firing pin.Norma21
113The space between the breech bolt/block face and the cartridge base with the action closed.NFSC44
114In reloading, the slight gap that is permitted between the bolt face and the case head to facilitate closure of the bolt. Headspace is actually the distance between the bolt face and the part of the chamber that acts as the cartridge stop.Norma14
115The distance above the target a shooter must aim when the rifle is zeroed at a lesser range.Norma11
116A bullet design in which the lead core does not come all the way to the bullet tip.Norma12
117A highly destructive shock wave created by a bullet passing through any tissue with a high concentration of water such as animal tissue or ballistic gelatin.Norma21
118International Defensive Pistol Association – runs competition events.ORG11
119The initial combustion of the powder caused by the flame of the primer.Norma24
120A standard cartridge that has been modified to fit a specially chambered rifle, with less body taper and/or a more sharply angled shoulder. Modification is done by fire-forming in the chamber in which it is intended to be used.Norma11
121Ballistic tables computed by the late Col. James M Ingalls. The projectiles used by Col. Ingalls serve as the basis for his computations which are regarded as one of the standards for comparison of all small arms projectiles.Norma12
122International Precision Rifle FederationORG11
123International Practical Shooting Confederation – runs competition events.ORG11
124The outer covering of a bullet that is used to contain the lead core and improve the "mushrooming" characteristics. Gilding metal is considered best for this purpose.Norma22
125The imprint of a bullet in a target which shows that the bullet was not travelling head-on to the target.NFSC22
126The keyhole-shaped print of a bullet on the target which indicates it was not stabilized.Norma22
127The raised portion of the bore between the rifling grooves.NFSC22
128The raised portion of the spiral rifling that remains after the groove cuts have been made.Norma22
129The distance between the mouth of the cartridge and the point at which the rifling engages the bullet. Same as Freebore and Throat.Norma11
130Particles of bullet metal torn off as the bullet passes through the bore which adheres to the bore.NFSC22
131A projection of the axis of the bore, which is straight to infinity. Line of Departure is coincident with the path of the projectile up to the time the projectile leaves the muzzle.Norma11
132The straight line from the eye through the sights to the target or point of aim.NFSC21
133An imaginary line, straight to infinity, which passes through the sights. Coincident with the point of aim.Norma21
134The weight of the powder charge, expressed in grains, divided by the volume of the cartridge case, also expressed in grains. The cartridge case volume is obtained by determining the amount of water the case will hold when the bullet is seated to the SAAMI/CIP suggested maximum cartridge length.Norma11
135The firing mechanism of a firearm.NFSC22
136The elapsed time between release of the firing pin and its strike on the primer.Norma11
137Protrusions on the bolt that engage a mating recess inside the receiver ring when the bolt is closed. This feature prevents the bolt from moving rearard when the rifle is fired.Norma12
138A metal case holding several cartridges in some firearms.NFSC33
139A load or cartridge having large powder capacity in relation to bore diameter.NFSC21
140A firearm or cartridge case capable of greater power than is normal for the bullet diameter.Norma21
141The diameter of the blunt section of a bullet tip.Norma14
142A primer in which a mercuric compound is used. The corrosive effect of this type of compound has discouraged its use in recent years (see the section of Corrosive Primers).Norma12
143Metal deposited from the projectile as it passes through the bore.Norma12
144A calliper-type instrument used to measure thickness or diameter.Norma11
145The highest vertical distance of a bullet above the line of sight.NFSC22
146A unit of angular deviation equal to one-sixtieth of a degree.NFSC21
147A unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60th of a degree. Usually approximated as 1 inch (actually 1.047 inch) at 100 yeards, 2" at 200 yards, etc.Norma12
148The failur of a cartridge to fire after the strike of a firing pin.Norma11
149The ideal shape of a bullet following impact against animal tissue.Norma21
150The ability or capacity of a projectile to expand on or after impact.NFSC33
151The front end of a barrel. The point from which the projectile leaves the barrel.NFSC24
152The end of the barrel where the projectile leaves the bore.Norma14
153The release of gas from the muzzle immediately, following the projectile's exit.Norma13
154The energy of a projectile, measured in foot pound, at the muzzle.Norma12
155The velocity of a projectile, usually measured in fps, at the muzzle.Norma14
156The narrow portion of the case, forward of the shoulder, which grips the bullet.Norma22
157A technique used to achieve uniform case wall thickness at the neck by removing metal from the inside of the case mouth.Norma13
158A resizing technique in which only the neck portion of the case is resized.Norma25
159A technique to achieve uniform case wall thickness at the neck by removing metal from the outside of the case wall.Norma13
160A primer containing a priming compound which does not induce rust or corrosion in the bore or case. Most military ammunition prior to 1950 contained a corrosive compound. This pracice was discontinued in 150.Norma22
161National Rifle Association – an organization you should join to support our right to own firearms. You can sign up on this website or in the store.ORG22
162The Institute for Legislative Action is the lobbying arm of the National rifle association.ORG11
163National Shooting Sports Foundation – preserves hunting and shooting sports.ORG11
164It's the curved portion of a bullet forward of the bearing surface.Manual21
165The curved, forward portion of a bullet's design.Norma11
166A non optical sight, the rear portion of which has a flat or U or V shape cut-out.NFSC33
167Overall Cartridge Length is as the name indicates, the length of a ready-made cartridge when it consists of a particular selection of components.Norma13
168The unique bullet concept developed by John Nosler, in which a part of the jacket material is used to form a barrier between the front and read lead cores of a bullet. A registered trademark of Nosler, Inc.Norma22
169The distribution of pellets from a shotgun at a given distance in a given area.NFSC32
170A non-optical sight, the rear portion of which has a hole, aperture or ?peep? to look through.NFSC23
171A primer that has been punctured, usually by a defective firing pin.Norma21
172See corrosion.NFSC21
173Informal target shooting.NFSC32
174The point where the bullet path intersects the line of sight.Norma23
175A target shooter?s perfect score.NFSC21
176The highly combustible substance that generates a heavy gas upon ignition. The pressure of this gas acts as a propellant to drive the projectile down the bore.Norma13
177A measuring device designed to throw uniform charges of powder.Norma24
178A precision measuring device designed for weighing powder; calibrated in grains and tenths of grains.Norma16
179The force created by burning powder against the case, chamber and projectile.NFSC23
180The force exerted by burning powder. Expressed as "peak pressure".Norma13
181A small metallic cup containing a detonating mixture which is seated in a recess in the base of the case and which, when fired, ignites the powder inside the case.NFSC33
182A small metal cup containing a priming compound which, when crushed against the anvil by the firing pin, creates an intense spark that ignites the powder granules inside the case. Also commonly referred to as a "cap". See also Berdan, Boxer.Norma14
183The component of a cartridge which initiates the combustion of the propellant powder that will provide speed and energy to push the projectile out of the gun barrel.Norma14
184A depression in the primer resulting from the strike of the firing pin.Norma12
185The cavity in the base of a cartridge case which receives and supports the primer.NFSC23
186A recess in the head of a centerfire cartridge case which holds the primer.Norma13
187The shot, ball or bullet fired from any firearm.NFSC23
188A bullet when it is in motion after having been fired from a rifle barrel.Norma13
189A primer that has partially backed out of the primer pocket.Norma12
190The pressure required on a trigger to release the firing mechanism. A term used to indicate the distance from trigger to butt plate. A command to release the target in trap shooting.NFSC23
191To remove material from a cavity with a rotary cutting tool.Norma12
192A case with a rim that is of smaller diameter than the case body.Norma13
193The frame of a firearm consisting of breech, locking and reloading mechanisms.NFSC33
194The backward thrust of a firearm caused by the reaction to the powder gases pushing the bullet forward.NFSC43
195The residual energy of a projectile, measured in foot pounds/joules, at given distance from the muzzle.Norma12
196The velocity of a projectile, usually measured in fps, at a given distance from the muzzle.Norma11
197A precisely chambered die used to re-form a fired case to the proper dimensions. When properly used, it will allow the case to be chambered in any rifle of the same caliber.Norma13
198Parallel spiral grooves cut or impressed into the bore of rifles and pistols in order to make the bullet spin, ensuring steady, point-on flight to the target.NFSC32
199Paralell spiral grooves, cut into the bore of the firarm, which impart a spin on the projectile.Norma12
200The flange behind the extractor groove on a cartridge case. Used as a means of extracting a case from the chamber after firing.Norma12
201A relatively low-velocity cartridge in which the primer compound is located under the rim, inside the case. The firing pin strikes the edge of the case rim, crushing the primer compound and igniting the powder. These cases are not reloadable.Norma15
202A case with a rim of the same diameter as the case body.Norma12
203A case with a rim of greater diameter than the case body.Norma12
204A completely assembled cartridge with all components unused.Norma12
205A bullet design that features a blunt, spherical shape at the tip.Norma23
206A split or separation in the case wall or neck.Norma23
207Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute – an accredited standards developer.ORG11
208Single Action Shooting Society – governs cowboy action shooting competition.ORG12
209A part designed to hold the hammer or firing pin at half or full cock.NFSC23
210The depth to which a bullet is inserted into the case mouth.Norma22
211A die that can be adjusted to control seating depth of a bullet.Norma25
212Type of Ogive CurveManual22
213The ratio of a bullet's weight, in pounds, to the square of its diameter, in inches.Norma23
214A case with a rim of slightly larger diameter than the case body.Norma12
215The cylindrical, straight section of a bullet behind the ogive.Norma20
216The device that holds the case upright and guides it into the die cavity. A given cartridge requires a shellholder of a specific size.Norma23
217Is the area where shooting may legally and safely take place.NFSC34
218That portion of a case that sloped from the body to the neck.Norma20
219The distance between the front and rear sights.Norma11
220Smokeless powder manufactured of nitrocellulose.Norma11
221The modern propellant developed to replace black powder. These powders can be manufactured in two forms ie. Single-base and doublebase. The main ingredient of single-base smokeless power is nitro-cellulose. It also contains a small percentage of special purpose additives. The main ingredient of double-base propellants is nitro-cellulose, which is supplemented by a percentage of nitro-glycerine and a small percentage of special purpose ingredients.NFSC23
222Smokeless powder shaped into flattened ball granules or round balls.Norma13
223The rotation of the projectile, caused by the spiral rifling of the bore.Norma10
224A bullet shape employing a sharp point. Derivative of the German word spitzegeschoss meaning sharp pointed bullet.NFSC21
225To alter or convert a military firearm to suit sporting requirements.NFSC21
226To cause a projectile to rotate rapidly enough around its long axis to keep it from tumbling or yawing in flight.Norma20
227The part(s) of a firearm onto which the barrel and firing mechanism are assembled.NFSC23
228A process used to form a material under pressure.Norma22
229Type of Ogive CurveManual22
230The forward portion of the chamber where it tapers to meet the diameter of the bore proper.NFSC33
231The unrifled section of the bore immediately ahead of the chamber. See also Leade and Freebore.Norma10
232The amount of time it takes for a projectile from the muzzle to the target.Norma10
233The curved path of a projectile from muzzle to target.NFSC23
234The part of a firearm moved by the finger to release the firing mechanism.NFSC33
235Spiral inclination of the rifling grooves to the axis of the bore, measured by distance in which the bullet makes one complete turn.NFSC32
236The rate of spiral of the rifling. Given as the barrel length required to make one full revolution: i.e, "One Turn in Ten Inches", etc.Norma10
237United States Practical Shooting Association – runs competition events.ORG11
238The speed at which the projectile or bullet travels.NFSC33
239The speed of a projectile in flight. Usually measured in fps or m/s at a specific distance.Norma13
240A finely graduated, precision measuring instrument of much use to the handloader.Norma14
241Plastic or fibre device which separates the powder from shot in a shotgun cartridge.NFSC34
242The solid portion of a cartridge case between the bottom of the primer pocket and the case interior. A flash hold through the web provides a means for igniting the powder by the primer.Norma12
243A non-standard cartridge which is not produced by commercial manufacturers.NFSC34
244A cartridge that is not commercially available. Produced from standard cases through the use of special forming dies, the altered case must be fire-formed in the chamber of the rifle to complete the reforming process.Norma14
245A lateral change in bullet trajectory caused by crosswind.Norma13
246The horizontal adjustment of a sight to bring the point of aim into coincidence with the point of impact.Norma14
247In shooting, the point at which the line of sight is coincident with the bullet trajectory at a given distance from the muzzle. In "zeroing" a rifle, sight adjustments are made until this condition exists at the range. Also known as Zero Range or Point Blank Range (PBR).Norma12
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